Never Underestimate An Old Lady Who Loves Dogs Shirt

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Never Underestimate An Old Lady Who Loves Dogs Shirt

To further investigate the evolutionary history of PCDs, we generated low-coverage (~0.005 to 2.0×) nuclear genome sequences from seven PCDs sampled in six locations in North America from time frames spanning ~9000 years (table S1). We analyzed these nuclear data alongside publicly available datasets including 45 modern canid whole genomes sampled from Eurasia and the Americas (table S2) (13–16). A neighbor-joining tree constructed by using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed that, like the mitogenome phylogeny, PCDs clustered in a distinct monophyletic lineage that is more closely related to dogs than to either Eurasian or North American wolves (Fig. 1C). Furthermore, our nuclear genome analysis indicated that the closest-related sister clade to PCDs consists of modern Arctic dogs from the Americas (including Alaskan malamutes, Greenland dogs, and Alaskan huskies) and Eurasia (Siberian huskies) (Fig. 1C). Treemix (3) (Fig. 1D), outgroup f3 statistics (fig. S13), and D statistics (figs. S14 and S15) also supported this phylogenetic structure. Combined, our mitochondrial and nuclear results indicate that PCDs were not domesticated in situ from North American wolves but were instead introduced by people into the Americas via Beringia from a population related to modern Arctic dogs.

Never Underestimate An Old Lady Who Loves Dogs Shirt6
Never Underestimate An Old Lady Who Loves Dogs Shirt6
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Never Underestimate An Old Lady Who Loves Dogs Shirt9

Never Underestimate An Old Lady Who Loves Dogs Shirt

We sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from 71 archaeological dog remains collected in North America and Siberia (Fig. 1A and table S1) and analyzed these with 145 mitogenomes derived from a global dataset of modern and ancient canids (3). A phylogenetic tree constructed from the mitogenomes indicated that all sampled precontact dogs (PCDs) (from time frames spanning ~9000 years) formed a monophyletic group within dog haplogroup A (Fig. 1B and figs. S3 and S6). This analysis indicated that the mitochondrial lineage most closely related to the PCD clade is that of the ~9000-year-old population of dogs from Zhokhov Island in Eastern Siberia (3) (Fig. 1B and figs. S3 and S6). In addition, molecular clock analyses suggest that all PCDs share a common ancestor that lived ~14,600 years ago [95% highest posterior density (HPD), 16,484 to 12,965 years ago] (Fig. 1B and fig. S6), which had diverged from an ancestor shared with the Zhokhov Island dogs ~1000 years earlier (95% HPD, 17,646 to 13,739 years ago) (Fig. 1B and fig. S6). These time frames are broadly coincident with early migrations into the Americas (10–12)

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Never Underestimate An Old Lady Who Loves Dogs 7
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